Categorie archief: astrology

Hourglass Nebula

 

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The Engraved Hourglass Nebula (also known as MyCn 18) is a young planetary nebula situated in the southern constellation Musca about 8,000 light-years away from Earth. It was discovered by Annie Jump Cannon and Margaret W. Mayall during their work on an extended Henry Draper Catalogue. At the time [January 18, 1996] it was designated simply as a small faint planetary nebula. Much improved telescopes and imaging techniques allowed the hourglass shape of the nebula to be discovered by Raghvendra Sahai and John Trauger of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory on January 18, 1996. It is conjectured that MyCn 18’shourglass shape is produced by the expansion of a fast stellar wind within a slowly expanding cloud which is denser near its equator than its poles.

The Hourglass Nebula was photographed by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 of the Hubble Space Telescope.

The Hourglass Nebula was featured on the cover of the April 1997 issue of National Geographic. The nebula’s unique appearance led the magazine’s editors to comment, “Astronomers looked 8,000 light-years into the cosmos with the Hubble Space Telescope, and it seemed that the eye of God was staring back.”

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compasses

 

compass

compassmagnetic compass or mariner’s compass is a navigational instrument for determining direction relative to the earth’s magnetic poles. It consists of a magnetized pointer (usually marked on the North end) free to align itself with Earth’s magnetic field. The face of the compass generally highlights the cardinal points of north, south, east and west. The compass greatly improved the safety and efficiency of travel, especially ocean travel. A compass can be used to calculate heading, used with a sextant to calculate latitude, and with a marine chronometer to calculate longitude. It thus provides a much improved navigational capability that has only been partially supplanted by modern devices such as the gyrocompass and the Global Positioning System (GPS).

A compass is any magnetically sensitive device able to indicate the direction of the magnetic north of a planet’s magnetosphere. Often compasses are built as a stand alone sealed instrument with a magnetized bar or needle turning freely upon a pivot, or moving in a fluid, thus able to point in a northerly and southerly direction. An early compass was invented in ancient China before 1044. The dry compass was invented in medievalEurope around 1300.This was supplanted in the early 20th century by the liquid-filled magnetic compass.

Other, more accurate, devices have been invented for determining north that do not depend on the Earth’s magnetic field for operation (known in such cases as true north, as opposed to magnetic north). A gyrocompass orastrocompass can be used to find true north, while being unaffected by stray magnetic fields, nearby electrical power circuits or nearby masses of ferrous metals. A recent development is the electronic compass, or Fibre optic gyrocompass, which detects the magnetic directions without potentially fallible moving parts. This device frequently appears as an optional subsystem built into GPS receivers.

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How to make a compass

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circle divided by a horizontal line

30011

30:1 · The circle divided by a horizontal line is a structure often found on rock carvings. In early Chinese calligraphy it represented the sun(the earliest sun sign was 2609, though). In the Greek alphabet the structure is used to signify the letter theta. The sign is used in at least ten different ideographic systems of natural science, and in the new religion conceived by the late science fiction writer and philosopher L. Ron Hubbard half a century ago, Scientology, it is a symbol for the individual human spirit
    The alchemists used 3001 to denote salt (more usually drawn 2620b or 3044b). 
    In a system of the four elements that is Spanish in origin, we find 3001 meaning water (the others are 2901 for earth2609 for fire, and 2601a forair). 
    This sign is generally associated with the idea of something absolute, e.g. absolute timeabsolute temperatureabsolute center etc. With regard to this, 3001 can be said to be synonymous with 1001
    In other modern systems 3001 is used to mean stop or end.

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circle divided by a vertical line

3002a

30:3 · The circle divided by a vertical line is an ancient sign of the alphabets used in antiquity in the Near East. The alchemists used it to signify nitrogen, or saltpeter. Among the Hittites 3002a and 3002b were closely associated with the idea of lightning
    In his nineteenth-century system for the chemical elements John Dalton used 3002a for nitrogen
    Some meteorological sign systems used 3002a for solar halo.

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Fu Lu Shou

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Fu Lu Shou (traditional Chinese: 福祿壽; simplified Chinese: 福禄寿; pinyin: Fú Lù Shòu) refers to the concept of Good Fortune (Fu), Prosperity (Lu), and Longevity (Shou). This Taoist concept is thought to date back to the Ming Dynasty, when the Fu Star, Lu Star and Shou Star were considered deities of these attributes respectively. The term is commonly used in Chinese culture to denote the three attributes of a good life.

 

Fu star

The Fu star (福) refers to the planet Jupiter. In traditional astrology, the planet Jupiter was believed to be auspicious. Alternately, according to Taoist legend, the Fu Star is associated with Yang Cheng, a governor of Daozhou. Yang Cheng risked his life by writing a memorial to the emperor to save the people from suffering. After his death, the people built a temple to commemorate him, and over time he came to be considered the personification of good fortune.

The Fu star is often placed in the centre when the three are depicted as a group. He is generally depicted in scholar’s dress, holding a scroll, on which is sometimes written the character “Fu”. He may also be seen holding a child, or surrounded by children.

 

Lu star

The Lu star (禄) is Ursa Major-ζ, or, in traditional Chinese astronomy, the sixth star in the Wenchang cluster, and like the Fu star came to be personified. The Lu star is believed to be Zhang Xian who lived during the Later Shu dynasty. The word luspecifically refers to the salary of a government official. As such, the Lu star is the star of prosperity, rank, and influence.

The Lu star was also worshipped separately from the other two as the deity dictating one’s success in the Imperial Examinations, and therefore success in the imperial bureaucracy. The Lu star is usually depicted in the dress of a mandarin.

 

Shou star

The Shou star (壽) is Argo Navis-α (Canopus), the star of the South Pole in Chinese astronomy, and is believed to control the life spans of mortals. According to legend, he was carried in his mother’s womb for ten year before being born, and was already an old man when delivered. He is recognized by his high, domed forehead and the peach which he carries as a symbol of immortality. The God of Longevity is usually shown smiling and friendly, and he may sometimes be carrying a gourd filled with Elixer of Life.

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Nannan/sin

2007a

20:7 · This ideogram is very old. It was a symbol for the moon god Nannan, later Sin, in the Euphrates-Tigris region. The sign has most likely been in use from around 2500 B.C. During the Babylonian times it appeared with 2676 and 2530 for the Venus god and the Sun god, respectively. See these signs in Group 26 and Group 25
    The structurally almost identical 2007b and 2007c appear today in astronomy and almanacs signifying the moon’s first and last quartersrespectively. 
    As a technical engineering sign 2007d is used for a specific type of compressor.

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The shamash-seal

sshamash

Shamash was the common Akkadian name of the sun god and god of justice in Babylonia and Assyria, corresponding to Sumerian Utu.

The name simply means “sun”. Both in early and in late inscriptions Sha-mash is designated as the “offspring of Nannar”; i.e. of the moon-god, and since, in an enumeration of the pantheon, Sin generally takes precedence of Shamash, it is in relationship, presumably, to the moon-god that the sun-god appears as the dependent power. Such a supposition would accord with the prominence acquired by the moon in the calendar and in astrological calculations, as well as with the fact that the moon-cult belongs to the nomadic and therefore earlier stage of civilization, whereas the sun-god rises to full importance only after the agricultural stage has been reached. The two chief centres of sun-worship in Babylonia were Sippar, represented by the mounds at Abu Habba, and Larsa, represented by the modern Senkerah. At both places the chief sanctuary bore the name E-barra (or E-babbara) “the shining house” – a direct allusion to the brilliancy of the sun-god. Of the two temples, that at Sippara was the more famous, but temples to Shamash were erected in all large centres – such as Babylon, Ur, Mari, Nippur, and Nineveh. Another reference to Shamash is the Babylonian epic Gilgamesh. When Gilgamesh and Enkidu travel to slay Humbaba, each morning they pray and make libation to shamash in the direction of the rising sun for safe travels.

The attribute most commonly associated with Shamash is justice. Just as the sun disperses darkness, so Shamash brings wrong and injustice to light. Hammurabi attributes to Shamash the inspiration that led him to gather the existing laws and legal procedures into a code, and in the design accompanying the code the king represents himself in an attitude of adoration before Shamash as the embodiment of the idea of justice. Several centuries before Hammurabi, Ur-Engur of the Ur dynasty (c. 2600 BC) declared that he rendered decisions “according to the just laws of Shamash.”It was a logical consequence of this conception of the sun-god that he was regarded also as the one who released the sufferer from the grasp of the demons. The sick man, therefore, appeals to Shamash as the god who can be depended upon to help those who are suffering unjustly. This aspect of the sun-god is vividly brought out in the hymns addressed to him, which are, therefore, among the finest productions in the entire realm of Babylonian literature. It is evident from the material at our disposal that the Shamash cults at Sippar and Larsa so overshadowed local sun-deities elsewhere as to lead to an absorption of the minor deities by the predominating one. In the systematized pantheon these minor sun-gods become attendants that do his service. Such are Bunene, spoken of as his chariot driver and whose consort is Atgi-makh, Kettu (“justice”) and Mesharu (“right”), who were then introduced as attendants of Shamash. Other sun-deities such as Ninurta and Nergal, the patron deities of other important centers, retained their independent existences as certain phases of the sun, with Ninurta becoming the sun-god of the morning and spring time and Nergal the sun-god of the noon and the summer solstice. In the wake of such syncretism Shamash was usually viewed as the sun-god in general.

Together with Nannar-Sin and Ishtar, Shamash completes another triad by the side of Anu, Enlil and Ea. The three powers Sin, Shamash and Ishtar symbolized three great forces of nature: the moon, the sun, and the life-giving force of the earth, respectively. At times instead of Ishtar we find Adad, the storm-god, associated with Sin and Shamash, and it may be that these two sets of triads represent the doctrines of two different schools of theological thought in Babylonia which were subsequently harmonized by the recognition of a group consisting of all four deities.

The consort of Shamash was known as Aya. She is, however, rarely mentioned in the inscriptions except in combination with Shamash.

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